Vol. 44 (6): 1207-1214, November – December, 2018

doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2018.0401


Lida Sharifi-Rad 1, 2, Seyedeh-Sanam Ladi-Seyedian 1, Hossein Amirzargar 1, Abdol-Mohammad Kajbafzadeh 1
1 Pediatric Urology and Regenerative Medicine Research Center, Children’s Medical Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2 Department of Physical Therapy, Children’s Medical Center, Pediatric Center of Excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objective: To determine the different urine flow patterns and active pelvic floor electromyography (EMG) during voiding in children with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) as well as presenting the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms in these patients.

Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of children diagnosed with VUR after toilet training from Sep 2013 to Jan 2016. 225 anatomically and neurologically normal children were included. The reflux was diagnosed with voiding cystourethrography. The study was comprised an interview by means of a symptom questionnaire, a voiding diary, uroflowmetry with EMG and kidney and bladder ultrasounds. Urine flow patterns were classified as bell shape, staccato, interrupted, tower and plateau based on the current International Children’s Continence Society guidelines.

Results: Of 225 children with VUR (175 girls, 50 boys), underwent uroflowmetry + EMG, 151 (67.1%) had an abnormal urine flow pattern. An active pelvic floor EMG during voiding was confirmed in 113 (50.2%) children. The flow patterns were staccato in 76 (33.7 %), interrupted in 41 (18.2%), Plateau in 26 (11.5%), tower in 12 (5.3%) and a bell shape or normal pattern in 70 (31.5%). Urinary tract infection, enuresis and constipation respectively, were more frequent symptoms in these patients.

Conclusions: Bladder/bowel dysfunction is common in patients with VUR that increases the risk of breakthrough urinary tract infections in children receiving antibiotic prophylaxis and reduces the success rate for endoscopic injection therapy. Therefore investigation of voiding dysfunction with primary assessment tools can be used prior to treating VUR.

Keywords: Vesico-Ureteral Reflux; Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms; Urinary Bladder

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