Vol. 45 (2): 210-214, March – April, 2019

doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2019.02.02


Leonardo O. Reis 1, 2, Danilo L. Andrade 1, Fernando J. Bianco Jr. 3
1 UroScience, Pontifícia Universidade de Campinas – PUC Campinas, Campinas, SP, Brasil; 2 Departa­mento de Urologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brasil; 3 – Urological Research Network, Miami, FL, USA

Keywords: Prostatic Neoplasms; Risk Reduction Behavior; Watchful Waiting; Therapeutics

Prostate cancer is the most common solid tumor in men in western countries. Notwithstanding, its high incidence, most patients survive their prostate cancer diagnosis and die from other causes (1). This low cancer death event rate poses remarkable challenges for both patients and their treating physicians. Fundamentally the “overs”, meaning overdiagnosis and overtreatment (2).
Both particularly important as significant issues for patients arise as consequences of treatment.
Distastefully, urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction, among other, both exerting substantial impact in quality of life (3).

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