Vol. 42 (6): 1160-1167, November – December, 2016

doi: 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2015.0622


Abbas Basiri 1, Amir H Kashi 1,2, Mehdi Zeinali 1, Mahmoodreza Nasiri 1, Reza Sarhangnejad 1, Reza Valipour 1

1 Urology and Nephrology Research Center, Shahid Labbafinejad Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2 Hasheminejad Kidney Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Objectives: To evaluate the success of ultrasonography directed renal access in entering the target calyx from proper entry site and in the direction of renal pelvis during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

Materials and Methods: PCNL cases who were operated on by one fellow from May-June 2014 were included in this study. A vertically placed ultrasound probe on the patient flank in prone position was used to identify the preselected target calyx. Needle was advanced through needle holder and fluoroscopy was used to document the entered calyx, site and angle of entry.

Results: Successful entering to the target calyx was achieved in 43 cases (91%). Successful entry with appropriate entry site and angle was observed in 34 cases (72%). Reasons for failure were minimal hydronephrosis, upper pole access and high lying kidneys.

Conclusions: Although it is feasible to access a preselected calyx by ultrasonography guidance during PCNL, but entry to the calyx from the appropriate site and direction is another problem and needs more experience. In cases of minimal hydronephrosis, superior pole access or high lying kidneys, ultrasonography is less successful and should be used with care.

Keywords: Ultrasonography; Nephrostomy, Percutaneous

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