Vol. 45 (3): 572-580, May – June, 2019
Lee A. Hugar 1, Ilan Kafka 2, Thomas W. Fuller 1, Hassan Taan 1, Timothy D. Averch 1, Michelle J. Semins 1
1 Department of Urology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2 Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Purpose: To better characterize metabolic stone risk in patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies (NDMD) by determining how patient characteristics relate to renal calculus composition and 24-hour urine parameters.
Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies presenting to our multidisciplinary Kidney Stone Clinic. Patients with a diagnosis of NDMD, at least one 24-hour urine collection, and one chemical stone analysis were included in the analysis. Calculi were classified as primarily metabolic or elevated pH. We assessed in clinical factors, demographics, and urine metabolites for differences between patients who formed primarily metabolic or elevated pH stones.
Results: Over a 16-year period, 100 patients with NDMD and nephrolithiasis were identified and 41 met inclusion criteria. Thirty percent (12 / 41) of patients had purely metabolic calculi. Patients with metabolic calculi were significantly more likely to be obese (median body mass index 30.3kg / m2 versus 25.9kg / m2), void spontaneously (75% vs. 6.9%), and have low urine volumes (100% vs. 69%). Patients who formed elevated pH stones were more likely to have positive preoperative urine cultures with urease splitting organisms (58.6% vs. 16.7%) and be hyperoxaluric and hypocitraturic on 24-hour urine analysis (37mg / day and 265mg / day versus 29mg / day and 523mg / day).
Conclusions: Among patients with NDMD, metabolic factors may play a more significant role in renal calculus formation than previously believed. There is still a high incidence of carbonate apatite calculi, which could be attributed to bacteriuria. However, obesity, low urine volumes, hypocitraturia, and hyperoxaluria suggest an underrecognized metabolic contribution to stone formation in this population.
Keywords: Nephrolithiasis; Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic; Kidney Calculi